The central tools for civic engagement in direct democracy are citizen and local resident initiatives and referendums. Different organisations, such as political parties, offer a channel for civic engagement. Public debate brings common issues into the public domain, and, thereby, potentially into the sphere of political decision making.
A group comprising a minimum of 50,000 Finnish citizens entitled to vote has the right to bring an initiative before the Parliament as part of the legislative process.
The initiative may include a bill or an initiative to commence legislative drafting. It may also concern an amendment to or the repeal of an act. If the initiative is formulated as a bill, it must incorporate the statute text. The initiative must be limited to one matter and it must always be supported by relevant grounds.
Before submitting a citizens’ initiative, familiarise yourself with
current legislation and refer to the guidelines on law drafting, Lainkirjoittajan opas.
According to the Finnish Local Government Act, Section 28, local residents have the right to submit initiatives to the local authority on matters related to its operations. Persons submitting initiatives “must be informed of action taken as a result of an initiative. At least once a year, informed of all initiatives submitted in matters within its purview and of action taken as a result.
If the persons submitting an initiative on a matter within the purview of the council represent at least two per cent of the local residents entitled to vote, the matter must be considered by the council not later than six months after the matter is instituted.
A European citizens' initiative is an invitation to the European Commission to propose legislation on matters where the EU has the competence to legislate. These matters include the environment, agriculture, transport and public health.
A European citizens' initiative In order to launch a citizens' initiative, citizens must form a "citizens' committee" composed of at least seven EU citizens resident in at least 7 different Member States. The members of the citizens' committee must be EU citizens old enough to vote in the European Parliament elections. A citizens' initiative has to be backed by at least one million EU citizens, coming from at least seven out of the 28 member states. A minimum number of signatories is required in each of those seven Member States.
The Commission carefully examines the initiative. Within 3 months of receiving the initiative:
The response, which takes the form of a communication, is formally adopted by the College of Commissioners and published in all official EU languages.
The Commission is not obliged to propose legislation as a result of an initiative. If the Commission decides to put forward a legislative proposal, the normal legislative procedure in begun: the Commission proposal is submitted to the legislator (generally the European Parliament and the Council or in some cases only the Council) and, if adopted, it becomes law.
In Finland, referendums are consultative.
According to Section 53 of the Constitution Act, the decision to organise a consultative referendum is made by an Act, which must contain provisions on the time of the referendum and on the choices to be presented to the voters. To date, only two referendums have been held in Finland. The referendum on the repeal of the prohibition was held on 29–30 December 1932 and on Finland’s EU membership on 16 October 1994.
The act governing the consultative local referendum (656/1990) came into force on 1 August 1990. In most cases, referendums have been held on municipal mergers. According to the Local Government Act, the council can decide to hold a referendum. Local residents representing at least five per cent of those entitled to vote may also initiate a referendum. A list of local referendums since 1991.
A party is a registered association entered in the party register. A party entered in the party register must have rules and a programme setting out its main objectives to influence state matters and policy-making, A party will be deleted from the register if it fails to gain a seat in the Parliament in two consecutive general elections. The party register is maintained by the Ministry of Justice. Party activities are governed by the Act on Political Parties.
In representative democracy, citizens can influence state and local matters through parties, as it is the parties (and electoral associations) who are entitled to nominate candidates for elections. Political parties offer voters a choice of programmes, actions and candidates to choose from. In the Parliament, MPs form parliamentary groups based on party membership.
Representative associations are associations looking after the interests of their members. Economic representative associations negotiate mutually and with the Government on reconciling their respective interests. For example, labour market lobbies exist both for the employees, such as the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions, and the employer sector, such as the Confederation of Finnish Industries.
NGOs provide a structured forum for civic engagement and participation and are therefore perhaps the most easily identifiable actors in civic society. Two of the key remits of NGOs are to influence societal issues and to contribute to policy making by channelling the needs and expertise of their members towards the process. During legislative drafting, consultation with stakeholders takes place with NGOs, among others.
The Constitution guarantees everyone freedom of expression. Freedom of expression entails the right to express, disseminate and receive information, opinions and other communications without prior prevention by anyone.
In terms of political influence, discussion taking place in the public sphere is important. Public debate is there to make issues public and to place these issues within the remit of public decision making. The public sphere for debate includes the traditional media and, to an increasing degree, the social media.
The social media open up opportunities for dialogue between politicians and the public as well as for communication and interaction independent of party organisations and the traditional media. The social media reinforce citizens’ freedom to disseminate and receive information without anyone’s prior intervention. It has also made expressing individual opinions, preferences and support much easier than previously was the case.
The debate takes place on many levels: amongst citizens, between communities, and between policy -makers and the public – globally and locally alike.
A petition is a political statement signed by several signatories. The main purpose of a petition is to place an issue on the public agenda and thereby bring it to the attention of decision makers.
Any citizen may, individually or in association with others, submit a petition to the European Parliament. The petition may present an individual request, a complaint or an observation concerning the application of EU law or an appeal to the European Parliament to adopt a position on a specific matter. Such petitions give the European Parliament the opportunity to call attention to any infringement of a European citizen's rights by a Member State or local authorities or other institutions.
A boycott is the act of abstaining from buying, selling or otherwise dealing with a person or organisation. Usually, the goal of the boycott is to force the target of the boycott to change their behaviour, for example, a business practice deemed immoral or unfair. Economic sanctions are exercised by a state or several states on another state in order to influence the actions taken by means of economic penalties.
According to the Constitution, everyone has the right to arrange meetings and demonstrations without a permit, as well as the right to participate in them. The objectives of the Assembly Act are to guarantee the exercise of the freedom of assembly, as provided in the Constitution of Finland, as well as to lay down the necessary regulatory provisions on the arrangement of public meetings and public events.